The European Commission has published the 2022 annual report on intra-EU labour mobility. The report identifies trends in free movement of workers and their family members, based on the latest available data (2021/2020).
This edition also includes findings on cross-border mobility (i.e. those residing in one Member State and commuting for work to another Member State) and the mobility in different occupations.
Irrespective of the pandemic, the number of working age EU citizens living in another Member State remained stable, at 10.2 million in 2020. The number of persons moving, however, declined in line with the restrictions imposed because of the pandemic. With the pandemic phasing out, we expect that these figures will return to pre-Covid-levels.
The labour market performance of mobile workers has, following a Covid-induced dip in 2020, again reached 74%, i.e. the same level as for nationals. Demonstrating that EU movers and nationals show a similar behaviour in the labour market.
Cross-border workers in EU and EFTA countries are at 1.7 million. Depending on the economic structure of bordering regions, the profile of these workers differs considerably, however, on average they work very often in construction and industry (46% vs. 24% of the local population) and with 70% are men strongly overrepresented.
The report explores how mobility links with employment growth (or decline) in specific professions. This analysis points to the conclusion that the contribution of mobility to accommodate skill shortages needs a careful analysis, not to be overestimated.